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Read the full series. Education at a Glance is the authoritative source for information on the state of education around the world. It provides data on the structure, finances and performance of education systems across OECD countries and a number of partner economies.
More than charts and tables in this publication — as well as links to much more available on the educational database — provides key information on the output of educational institutions; the impact of learning across countries; access, participation and progression in education; the financial resources invested in education; and teachers, the learning environment and the organisation of schools.
The edition includes a focus on tertiary education with new indicators on tertiary completion rates, doctoral graduates and their labour market outcomes, and on tertiary admission systems, as well as a dedicated chapter on the Sustainable Development Goal 4. The output of educational institutions and the impact of learning 7 chapters available. To what level have adults studied? Access to education, participation and progress 7 chapters available.
Who participates in education? Financial resources invested in education 7 chapters available. How much is spent per student on educational institutions? Teachers, the learning environment and the organisation of schools 6 chapters available. How much time do students spend in the classroom? Country notes 47 chapters available. Data and methodology.
Education Indicators in Focus. Featured data. The output of educational institutions and the impact of learning 7 chapters available Expand To what level have adults studied?
By using our website you consent to all cookies in accordance with our updated Cookie Notice. Those changes give us a glimpse at how education could change for the better - and the worse - in the long term. With the coronavirus spreading rapidly across Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and the United States, countries have taken swift and decisive actions to mitigate the development of a full-blown pandemic. In the past two weeks, there have been multiple announcements suspending attendance at schools and universities.Aisin engine oil 0w20
As of March 13, the OECD estimated that over million children are affected due to school closures announced or implemented in 39 countries. In addition, another 22 countries have announced partial "localized" closures.
These changes have certainly caused a degree of inconvenience, but they have also prompted new examples of educational innovation. Although it is too early to judge how reactions to COVID will affect education systems around the world, there are signs suggesting that it could have a lasting impact on the trajectory of learning innovation and digitization.
Below, we follow three trends that could hint at future transformations:. The slow pace of change in academic institutions globally is lamentable, with centuries-old, lecture-based approaches to teaching, entrenched institutional biases, and outmoded classrooms. However, COVID has become a catalyst for educational institutions worldwide to search for innovative solutions in a relatively short period of time. To help slow the virus' spread, students in Hong Kong started to learning at home, in February, via interactive apps.
In China, million Chinese got access to learning material through live television broadcasts. Other simpler - yet no less creative - solutions were implemented around the globe. In one Nigerian school, standard asynchronous online learning tools such as reading material via Google Classroomwere augmented with synchronous face-to-face video instruction, to help preempt school closures. Similarly, students at one school in Lebanon began leveraging online learning, even for subjects such as physical education.
Students shot and sent over their own videos of athletic training and sports to their teachers as "homework," pushing students to learn new digital skills. Learning could become a habit that is integrated into daily routines - a true lifestyle. The platform is created with the support of the World Health Organization and is open to all businesses and industry groups, as well as other stakeholders, aiming to integrate and inform joint action.
As an organization, the Forum has a track record of supporting efforts to contain epidemics. Inat our Annual Meeting, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations CEPI was launched — bringing together experts from government, business, health, academia and civil society to accelerate the development of vaccines. CEPI is currently supporting the race to develop a vaccine against this strand of the coronavirus. In just the past few weeks, we have seen learning consortiums and coalitions taking shape, with diverse stakeholders - including governments, publishers, education professionals, technology providers, and telecom network operators - coming together to utilize digital platforms as a temporary solution to the crisis.The measurement of the research output of the Higher Education Institutions HEIs is problematic, due to the multi-product nature of their teaching and research activities.
This study analyses the difficulties related to the measurement of the research output of the HEI and proposes a simple overall indicator which incorporates quantitative and qualitative aspects to permit the decomposition of the influence of the two factors.
On the basis of this indicator homogeneous comparisons are made of the relative research output of the countries of the European Union and its evolution during the period — This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Rent this article via DeepDyve. Many studies have demonstrated the positive effects upon regional economic development of the research activities of universities, especially in the case of North American universities i. Pastor and Peraita offer a review of studies of the socioeconomic contribution of universities. Some studies FCYD ; Salas propose the additional use of diverse indicators of the quality of university teaching, such as the drop-out rate, the performance rate, the student—teacher ratio, expenditure per student, the number of information technology IT and library staff per student, expenditure per student, the number of doctorates with an honourable mention, etc.
On this question, see Mortensen et al. Klitkou and Gulbrandsen Klitkou and Gulbrandsen state that in interviews, some academic inventors claim they cannot talk about their most recent research because the relevant patents have not yet been secured. Moreover, some researchers have indicated in interviews that patents are sometimes based on the first draft of a scientific paper and that the patent application is written by a specialised professional Klitkou and Gulbrandsen A more detailed discussion about the complementarity or substitutability of publishing and patenting and their determinants is to be found in Salas and Crespia et al.
The impact factor IF is an indicator that reflects the average number of citations of recent articles published in scientific journals Garfield It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field, with journals with a higher IF deemed to be more important than those with lower ones. In a given year, the impact factor of a journal is the average number of citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years.
The SCImago Journal Rank SJR is a measure of the influence of scientific journals; it accounts for both the number of citations received by a journal and the importance or prestige of the journals from which such citations proceed. Falagas et al.
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on education
The Eigenfactor score Bergstrom is an indicator of the importance of a scientific journal. Journals are rated according to the number of incoming citations, with citations from highly ranked journals weighted to make a larger contribution to the Eigenfactor than those from poorly ranked journals.
The index is based on the set of the researcher's most frequently cited papers and the number of citations they have received in other publications. The h-index is intended to simultaneously measure the quality and quantity of scientific output. Franceschini and Maisano propose a structured method to compare academic research groups within the same discipline, by means of some Hirsch h based bibliometric indicators.
Sidiropoulos et al. The n h 3 index is designed to measure solely the impact of research, independently of the size of the institution. Bornmanna et al. A positive correlation between peer judgements and different citation-based indicators has been found Rinia et al. Charlton and Andras suggest using the total citations of universities as a measure of output.
According to these authors, this indicator has certain advantages compared with other indicators: it is cheap, quick, simple, transparent, objective, replicable and permits international and longitudinal comparisons.
The Scopus database contains a larger number of journals and covers the humanities. It doubles the number of journals indexed compared with the WoS, which ensures a greater thematic and geographical coverage. Corera et al. For example, Moed et al. They find that that a larger publication output is associated with a higher citation impact. Acosta, M. European Planning Studies, 22 5— Agrawal, A. Putting patents in context: Exploring knowledge transfer from MIT. Management Science, 48 144— Azoulay, P.The COVID pandemic has affected educational systems worldwide, leading to the near-total closures of schools, universities and colleges.
Most governments around the world have temporarily closed educational institutions in an attempt to contain the spread of COVID According to UNICEF monitoring, countries are currently implementing nationwide closures and 38 are implementing local closures, impacting about School closures impact not only students, teachers, and families. In response to school closures, UNESCO recommended the use of distance learning programs and open educational applications and platforms that schools and teachers can use to reach learners remotely and limit the disruption of education.
Efforts to stem the spread of COVID through non-pharmaceutical interventions and preventive measures such as social-distancing and self-isolation have prompted the widespread closure of primarysecondaryand tertiary schooling in over countries.
Previous outbreaks of infectious diseases have prompted widespread school closings around the world, with varying levels of effectiveness. However, effectiveness depends on the contacts children maintain outside of school.
If school closures occur late relative to an outbreak, they are less effective and may not have any impact at all. During the influenza pandemic in the United Statesschool closures and public gathering bans were associated with lower total mortality rates.
Early childhood and schools
Multiple countries successfully slowed the spread of infection through school closures during the H1N1 Flu pandemic. School closures in the city of OitaJapanwere found to have successfully decreased the number of infected students at the peak of infection; however closing schools was not found to have significantly decreased the total number of infected students.
During the swine flu outbreak in in the UKin an article titled "Closure of schools during an influenza pandemic" published in the Lancet Infectious Diseasesa group of epidemiologists endorsed the closure of schools in order to interrupt the course of the infection, slow further spread and buy time to research and produce a vaccine. They also looked at the dynamics of the spread of influenza in France during French school holidays and noted that cases of flu dropped when schools closed and re-emerged when they re-opened.
They noted that when teachers in Israel went on strike during the flu season of —visits to doctors and the number of respiratory infections dropped by more than a fifth and more than two fifths respectively. For schools and childcare facilities, the U. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends short-term closure to clean or disinfect if an infected person has been in a school building regardless of community spread.
When there is minimal to moderate community transmission, social distancing strategies can be implemented such as postponing or cancelling field tripsassemblies, and other large gatherings such as physical education or choir classes or meals in a cafeteria, increasing the space between desks, staggering arrival and dismissal times, limiting nonessential visitors, and using a separate health office location for children with flu-like symptoms.
When there is substantial transmission in the local community, in addition to social distancing strategies, extended school dismissals may be considered. He added the government will provide proper guidelines when the time is right to open schools. The report however recommends school's should be opened in September and students in Standard 8 and Form 4 should do their national examinations in February As of 7 June38 countries have localised school closures.
Some private and independent schools have chosen to close. On 22—23 March, the state governments of Victoria and the Australian Capital Territory contradicted federal government advice by enacting school closures, while the New South Wales state government encouraged students to stay home from school if possible.
Education at a Glance
Between 16 and 20 March, students could go to class, but absentees would not be penalised. Classes were indefinitely cancelled starting on March In Higher Education, Unicamp was the first university of the country to cancel all classes, stating on 13 March. Initially, classes were cancelled until 31 March, but later the university extended the suspension until 12 April.
In Rio de Janeiro, Jewish day schools also closed in the absence of a state-wide decision regarding the closure of Rio's public and private schools. A large number of higher educational institutions cancelled classes and closed dormitories in response to the outbreak, including all members of the Ivy League and many other public and private universities across the country.
The Act placed all federally held student loans into forbearance and no interest will be added through September 30, GDP by Over the last 40 years output has risen about 3. Growth in the productivity of labor, the major driver of increases in wages and standards of living, has measured about 2.
The contribution of education to labor productivity growth is estimated in different studies to be between 13 and 30 percent of the total increase. Whatever the contribution of education to growth in the past, investments in human capital may rise in importance relative to investments in other forms of capital as we transition to a post-industrial, knowledge-based economy.
Why might a more highly-educated work force increase economic growth? A more educated labor force is more mobile and adaptable, can learn new tasks and new skills more easily, can use a wider range of technologies and sophisticated equipment including newly emerging onesand is more creative in thinking about how to improve the management of work. All of these attributes not only make a more highly skilled worker more productive than a less skilled one but also enable employers to organize their work places differently and adjust better to changes necessitated by competition-by technical advances or by changes in consumer demand.
Just as a firm with better educated workers can perform better in these dimensions, so too can an economy with a better educated workforce. Skills beget more skills and new ways of doing business, workers learn from one another, and firms adapt their technology and their use of capital to the skills of the available work force.
The benefits of having a more educated work force accrue to everyone, not just to the organization where these individuals happen to work.Bliss os not booting
Further, these kinds of indirect or spillover effects for the firm or the economy as a whole may be especially important in an increasingly competitive global marketplace. Imagine an economy lacking in people able to read directions, use a sophisticated copier or a computer, or understand prevailing norms of behavior.
Even if a single organization in that economy were able to find or import such skills, other organizations would not be able to invest in certain kinds of equipment or certain kinds of businesses with any assurance that it could make the investment profitable.
Beyond that, a more educated work force may produce a less crime-ridden and healthier environment with better functioning civil institutions and all the benefits that flow to the business sector from that environment.
InNobel Laureate Robert Solow described the growth of national income as having three sources: increases in the stock of physical capital machines and buildings that are used to produce goods and servicesincreases in the size of the labor force, and a residual representing all other factors.
This residual contributed considerably more to per capita growth than the increase in the capital stock. Using the same basic approach as Solow, but explicitly accounting for the role of education, Edward Denison estimated that between andincreasing levels of education were the source of 16 percent of the growth of total potential output in the nonresidential business sector and 30 percent of the growth in the productivity of people employed in that sector. A more recent study by Dale Jorgenson and Kevin Stiroh puts the contribution of education to economic growth at 8.
Over the last two decades more attention has been paid to the theory of how education might affect economic growth and this work has implications for how we might model the impact of increased educational attainment. Also, in the type of model used in those studies an increase in the rate of investment leads to an increase in the level of GDP, but in the long run has no effect on the rate of growth of GDP. More recent research using models where growth is endogenous suggests that both the direct and indirect effects of education on growth could be substantially larger.
In some of these models the direct impact of a 10 percent increase in the amount of education that people get could be as much as 7 or 8 percent, and an increase in the rate of investment in education could produce a permanent increase in the rate of growth. Shep Melnick In order to proceed with our analysis without wading into this largely unsettled debate, we develop a single model that allows a broad range of assumptions about the importance of education for economic growth.
We first estimate the effects of a specific preschool policy intervention on educational attainment and then analyze the effects of that additional education on economic growth relative to the projected growth path in the absence of the policy.
In the particular simulation reported in this policy brief, we analyze the growth effects expected from a high-quality, national preschool program for all three- and four-year-old children. The best evidence about the effects of such an intervention on educational attainment comes from a set of small-scale experimental programs that featured random assignment and longitudinal evaluation of study participants.
For this simulation, we use results from studies of the Perry Preschool Program, which delivered a high-quality program to a small group of disadvantaged children in Ypsilanti, Michigan in the s, to determine the magnitude of the effect of high-quality preschool. We then adjust these results for the probable attenuation associated with delivering the program to a much broader and less disadvantaged group of children.
The Perry Preschool program provided low-income three- and four-year-old children with center-based care, two-and-a-half hours per day, five days per week for thirty weeks each year. The Perry program was characterized by high instructor quality, as well as remarkably low student-teacher ratios. Study participants were selected on the basis of their low socioeconomic status SES. In order to assess the effects of the program, program participants were randomly selected from a larger group of qualified children and the experiences of both those who took part in the program and those who did not were monitored on a periodic basis until the present-day, with study participants most recently surveyed at the age of forty.
At age twenty-seven, participants in the program were found to have levels of educational attainment 0. We utilize this finding as the primary input to our economic growth model. Also these narrow economic benefits were supplemented by numerous other benefits, including reduced rates of teenage pregnancy and dramatically lower rates of criminal activity relative to children who did not receive the program.
Projecting the effects of implementing a small scale program like Perry on a national level requires a number of assumptions in addition to the impact of the program on those who take part.This paper aims to conceptualize impacts of higher education institutions HEIs on sustainable development SDcomplementing previous literature reviews by broadening the perspective from what HEIs do in pursuit of SD to how these activities impact society, the environment and the economy.
The paper provides a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed journal articles published between and The findings indicate a strong focus on case studies dealing with specific projects and a lack of studies analyzing impacts from a more holistic perspective.
This systematic literature review enables decision-makers in HEIs, researchers and educators to better understand how their activities may affect society, the environment and the economy, and it provides a solid foundation to tackle these impacts. The review highlights that HEIs have an inherent responsibility to make societies more sustainable.Digi lte apn
HEIs must embed SD into their systems while considering their impacts on society. Findler, F. Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article for both commercial and non-commercial purposessubject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. Several literature reviews have been published, providing a comprehensive picture of the state of knowledge on the implementation of initiatives and commitments for SD and the motivations of HEIs to engage with the topic.
For example, Wiek et al. Other issues that have received significant attention include the implementation of sustainability initiatives Velazquez et al. Within this discourse, campus operations have received the largest share of scholarly attention Lozano et al. While these reviews have greatly improved our understanding of what HEIs do in pursuit of SD, less is known about what they actually achieve by their various activities for society, the natural environment and the economy, i.
Vaughter et al. They find that the literature on SD in HEIs remains mostly focused on case studies within institutional operations, with little examination of broader SD policies or impacts on SD. Koehn and Uittop. This poses two problems: First, for many HEIs, the communication of their impacts on SD is becoming an essential part of satisfying emerging accountability expectations from public and private funders, policymakers, accreditation agencies, students and faculty Bonaccorsi et al.
Second, there is a lack of clarity and a divergent understanding of the concept Gooch et al. Greater clarity on and deeper knowledge of such impacts is a prerequisite for well-informed strategic decisions and improved contribution to SD Lozano et al.
The purpose of this article is to systematically review the existing literature on impacts in higher education to provide an integrative conceptualization of the impacts of HEIs on SD. In this context, the impacts are understood to be the effects an HEI has on its stakeholders, the natural environment, the economy and society.
This article addresses the following two research questions: RQ1. This literature review is organized as follows.
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